A Cochrane review of interventions for subclinical and scientific hypothyroidism pre-pregnancy and during pregnancy (Reid) found that there is inadequate evidence to recommend using one intervention for medical or subclinical hypothyroidism pre-pregnancy or during pregnancy over another, for enhancing maternal, fetal, neonatal and childhood outcomes. Thyroxine is the standard treatment for hypothyroidism. 18 The typical technique is a preliminary dosage of 50-100 μg/ day with subsequent titration based on thyroid function tests examined 6-8 weeks later. Smaller sized initial dosages (25 μg/ day) needs to be utilized in elderly or extremely frail patients and in those with symptomatic ischaemic heart disease. Ideally, thyroxine should be taken in a fasting state, 1 hour prior to breakfast, however this may be bothersome and lower adherence, and it is most likely more vital that day-to-day dosing follows regard to time of day and relationship to meals. 18 The long half-life of thyroxine implies that if a dosage has actually been missed, a catch-up dosage can be taken later on in the day or the following day.
Treatment choices in extremely moderate or borderline cases can be hard and should be made in combination with a paediatric endocrinologist. Serial TFTs off treatment or start of thyroxine at a low dose ypothyroidism evaluation and treatment guidelines (5 mcg/kg/day) may be proper. Keep in mind that mild increases in TSH can be related to other conditions such as Trisomy 21, Williams syndrome and Albrights genetic osteodystrophy.
The early detection and treatment of hereditary hypothyroidism (CH) avoids intellectual impairment and optimises development and developmental outcomes. The majority of cases will be identified by newborn screening. In New Zealand, a raised level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) on a dried blood-spot sample gathered at 2 Days of age is used to evaluate for CH.
There are couple of scientific trials of thyroxine in pregnancy. In one research study, thyroxine treatment of TPOAb-positive, euthyroid pregnant ladies led to fewer miscarriages and preterm births. 47 More just recently, thyroxine treatment of pregnant women with raised TSH or reduced totally free T4 concentrations at a mean gestation of 12 weeks had no impact on obstetric results or on cognitive function in the offspring. 48 Other trials are in progress.
It remains controversial whether universal screening of pregnant females for thyroid dysfunction is indicated. 38, 39 The main worth of screening is most likely the detection of rare cases of overt hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism for which treatment is plainly suggested, rather than small problems of unpredictable significance (which are more typical). 35 Where screening is performed, TSH should be measured throughout the first trimester.
Serum thyroid function tests (capillary or venous), including TSH and totally free T4 (FT4). Regional experience supports a schedule of weekly TFTs for the 1st six weeks then month-to-month up until 1 year of age and 2-3 regular monthly in the Second year10. Ong GS, Hadlow NC, Brown SJ, et al. Does the thyroid-stimulating hormone measured ypothyroidism evaluation and treatment guidelines simultaneously with first trimester biochemical screening tests anticipate unfavorable pregnancy results taking place after 20 weeks pregnancy? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014; 99: E2668-E2672.
Hyperthyroidism and other reasons for thyrotoxicosis: management standards of the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Medical Endocrinologists. Thyroid 2011; 21: 593-646. Haugen BR, Alexander EK, Bible De Groot L, Abalovich M, Alexander EK, et al. Management of thyroid dysfunction throughout hypothyroidism treatment guidelines pregnancy and postpartum: an Endocrine Society scientific practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012; 97: 2543-2565.